Prequel to the Republic of China: Sun Yat-sen and the establishment of the Xing Zhong Hui

2022-05-01 0 By

November 12, 1866 (early October 6, the fifth year of The Reign of Emperor Xianfeng of the Qing Dynasty), Sun Yat-sen (literary name, courtesy name Deming, alias Yixian).In 1897, he was born in a peasant family in Cuiheng village, Xiangshan County (now Zhongshan City) in Guangdong Province, under the pseudonym Zhongshan Qiao, later popularly known as Sun Yat-sen, when he was exiled in Japan.His father, Sun Lin (Decheng), was a landless farmer. His two uncles went out to work as Chinese laborers, and his brother, Sun Mei, worked as a long laborer in the landlord’s house.His childhood, like that of all the poor peasant children, was prepared for hardship, and he participated in agricultural auxiliary labor at an early age. He was familiar with the darkness and corruption of rural society under the rule of the landlord class.As a child, Sun always had deep sympathy for the Chinese peasants. He “thought that the life of the Chinese peasants should not be so bitter for a long time.Chinese children should have shoes and rice to eat.At the age of ten, Sun Yat-sen began to study in a village school and received cultural education in a traditional way.At the age of twelve, he finished reading the Four books and five Classics.In May 1878, Sun Yat-sen left his hometown to live with Sun Mei in Honolulu.The trip to China opened the young man’s vision, he “began to see the boat strange, the sea wide, naturally have the heart of western learning, poor heaven and earth.”He began to grow up in a different social environment from his hometown.In the autumn of 1883, Sun Returned to Xiangshan.He tried to improve village politics at home, as he had seen abroad.In November of the same year, he entered the Diocesan Library in Hong Kong and joined Christianity at the end of the year.In April 1884, he was admitted to The Central College of Hong Kong.In the summer of 1886, Sun Yat-sen graduated from central Academy and entered Nanhua Medical School attached to Guangzhou Boji Hospital to study medicine.He often spoke about reforming Chinese politics at school, and thus met his classmate Zheng Shiliang.Zheng Shiliang (1863-1901) was born in Guishan (now Huiyang), Guangdong province. He was a triad member and later became a loyal comrade of Sun Yat-sen.In order to receive a more rigorous education and to express his political opinions freely, Sun yat-sen was transferred to the College of Western Medicine in Hong Kong in October 1887.The school was founded by Ho Chi (1859-1914), a bourgeois reformist thinker who was a member of the Hong Kong Council, a lawyer and a doctor.At school, Dr. Sun won the admiration of James Cantlie, a British teacher.In addition to the required courses, he also voraciously studied western history, politics, military, physics, agriculture and other works.In Hong Kong, there was a yeung Yiu kee shop in Gefu Street, which was opened by the family of Sun Yat-sen’s village friend, Yang Heling. Sun Yat-sen often came here after school to have parties with Yang Heling, Chen Shao-bai and Yu Lie.Yang Heling (1868-1934), famous shi Nian, word Li Xia.Chen Shaobai (1869-1934), originally named Wen Shao, later changed his name to Bai, styled Kuishi, a native of Xinhui, was a classmate of western Medicine College.She was born in Shunde and met by Sun Yat-sen when he was studying at nanhua Medical School.They talk high and make repeatedly full, jubilant, people call “four kou”.With the “four kou” had closely followed lu Haodong, Zheng Shiliang and other people.Lu Haodong (1867-1895), whose real name was Zhonggui and courtesy name was Xian Xiang, was also a village friend of Sun Yat-sen.When Sun Yat-sen was young, he had heard the story of the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom told by the elders of the village, and the achievements of Hong Xiuquan’s rebellion against the Qing left an unforgettable impression on him.At this time, he kept talking about his yearning for Hong Xiuquan’s career, calling Hong the first anti-Qing hero.Friends play call him to do “Hong Xiuquan second”, he also readily pretentious.For all their brazen talk, the young people did nothing.In February 1894, Sun Yat-sen and Lu Haodong went to the north to write a letter, and took the opportunity to observe the situation in the heart of the Qing dynasty.They found a way to meet Li Hongzhang in Shanghai through Zheng Guanying and Sheng Xuanhuai, and arrived in Tianjin in June to write letters.At that time, the Sino-Japanese War was about to break out. Li Hongzhang was busy with military affairs and did not receive him.The book was like a dead duck.Sun yat-sen’s hopes were disappointed.The failure of the letter taught Sun a wild lesson. He “got a doleful sigh, knew the way of peace, and beyond a doleful answer…Have to be a little easier to compel “(10).So they traveled from Tianjin to Beijing and other places, and then returned to Shanghai.Political corruption is as common in Beijing and Tianjin as it is at the local level.At that time, the War between China and Japan was fierce, but the Empress Dowager cixi diverted naval funds to build the Summer Palace.The field trip strengthened his revolutionary resolve.From then on, Sun was firmly on his way to overthrow the Qing dynasty.In October 1894, Sun Yat-sen went to Honolulu from Shanghai, where he propagated his anti-Qing views among overseas Chinese and planned to establish a revolutionary group.On November 24, HCCW was founded in Honolulu.On that day, Sun Yat-sen convened a meeting of more than 20 overseas Chinese who agreed with his idea in he Kuan residence and set up a group.Sun Yat-sen proposed naming the organization xing Zhong Hui and announced the nine articles of constitution he drafted, which were approved by the participants.Participants elected Liu Xiang (manager of Yonghe Tai Grocery Store), He Kuan (Chinese manager of American Commercial Bank) as chairman and vice chairman of Honolulu Xingzhong Association, Cheng Weinan (businessman), Xu Zhichen (businessman, part-time teacher) as chairman and deputy copywriter, Huang Huahui (manager of Yonghe Tai Company) as manager of warehouse.Li Chang (a local government interpreter), Zheng Jin (an immigration bureau interpreter), Deng Yinnan (a farmer) and other eight are value managers.Sun Yat-sen then asked the members to fill in the alliance letter, which was read by Li Chang. Each member put the Bible in his left hand and held up his right hand to read it to Tian Si di.After the meeting, the association continued to develop to various ports in Honolulu, and Sun Mei and others joined in.Xingzhonghui was the earliest bourgeois anti-Qing revolutionary small group, its establishment marked the beginning of Chinese bourgeois revolutionary activities.In its constitution, the Xing Zhong Hui revealed the seriousness of the national crisis and harshly condemned the qing dynasty’s reactionary rule.The constitution of the Xingzhong Association said bitterly: China’s weakness is not a day!On the same, window-dressing exaggeration;The second is ignorant and seldom able to think ahead.At the near, the former was a dishonor to the nation, the former was a hideout against the land, a magnificent Chinese, was contemptuous of the neighbours, was dressed in cultural relics and was considered inferior to other races.Husband with 400 trillion people, tens of thousands of miles of land rao, solid can strive for male, invincible in the world, but with yong slave damage the country, poison the lives of the people, a sheer sheer, so extreme.Square today strong adjacent ring row, tiger vision Eagle Features, long coveted in the rich Chinese hardware, products of rao, nibbling whale swallowed, has been effective in one after another, the subdivision, actually worry about at present.People can not help Shouting, save the people in the fire and water, cut the building will pour!With the special assembly to xingzhong, hsieh Xian hao in order to help each other, express this difficult time, drink me in summer, admire the comrades, the mixer!It further explained the purpose of the establishment of xingzhong Hui: it was established for the purpose of revitalizing China and maintaining the national constitution.It has been more than a day since China was bullied by foreign countries. It has been isolated from inside and outside. The feelings of the upper and the lower are unknown.This is to contact the Chinese and foreign people to create the association, in order to shen Minzhi, and support the national school.Soon after its establishment, hSING Chung club had more than 130 members in Honolulu.Among them, the overseas Chinese bourgeoisie, mainly small businessmen, small farmers and ranchers, accounted for the majority, followed by workers, staff, teachers and journalists.More than half of the members are sun Yat-sen’s xiangshan county fellow townsman, related to each other.At that time, deng Yinnan, Song Juren and other twenty people followed him back to China to engage in the revolutionary movement.Deng Yinnan (1848 — 1924) was named Song Sheng and was called Deng Sanbo because of his age.From Kaiping, Guangdong province.Triad member.He was originally a poor orphan, with his brother to make a living overseas, later business, concurrently engaged in agriculture, become a relatively rich overseas Chinese capitalist.To show his determination never to return, he sold up all his property.Later, the money was used up in the anti-Qing uprising, and he fell back into poverty, but he still resolutely engaged in revolutionary activities.His conduct was respected by the revolutionaries, and even by his political opponents.Liang Qichao said to Kang Youwei, “This man has spent tens of thousands of his family to help Zhongshan, but he still has no money. He has never regretted doing things for him, and he has always been determined to do things for him.When they left Dando, small shop owners such as Song Joo-in sold their businesses or quit their jobs.Their generous action for righteousness reflects the upsurge of revolutionary sentiment among overseas Chinese.On his way home through Yokohama, Japan, Sun Yat-sen sent out a large number of leaflets, declaring that “the flag will be raised in September to oppose, kill the Manchurians and restore the country of The Ming Dynasty”, and asked the overseas Chinese to organize clubs for support.At the end of January 1895, Sun Yat-sen arrived in Hong Kong to prepare for the establishment of the headquarters of the Xing Zhong Hui.Hcca has a better political base in Hong Kong than Honolulu.Sun Yat-sen called together his old friends Lu Haodong, Zheng Shiliang, Chen Shaobai, Yang Quyun, Huang Yongshang, Yang Heling, etc., and proposed to expand the organization of xingzhong Hui.Yang Quyun (1861-1901) was born in Chenghai, Fujian province. He went to Hong Kong with his father to study. Later, he worked as a clerk in a British business enterprise and got acquainted with Sun Yat-sen in 1892.Yang Quyun was the chief of furen Wenshe.The Fu Yan Wen Society was founded in 1890 as a club-like organization of public and private employees in Hong Kong to discuss politics and promote patriotism.Most of these people grew up in colonies, received relatively complete Western education, accustomed to European and American political life.They hated the feudal monarchy, but knew little about the internal affairs of China.Yang Quyun and Xie Zuotai agreed with Sun Yat-sen and decided to cancel the name of furen wenshu and join xingzhong Hui.On February 21, 1895, the headquarters of Xingzhonghui was established.Wong Wing Shang, a member of Hong Kong’s local council, was elected president.The headquarters of hSING Central was set up at 13 Staunton Road, Central, Hong Kong, under the name of “Gan Heng Hang” as a cover.Hong Kong Hing Chung Society updated the Constitution of Hing Chung Society.This charter put forward the idea of developing capitalism that “newspaper offices should be set up to open the atmosphere, schools should be set up to cultivate talents, dalii should be promoted to improve people’s livelihood, and deep-rooted evils should be eliminated to strengthen the national vein”.It also emphasizes the broader masses, the request will save the country to advocate “make the people of the whole country all can understand, united wisdom and stupidity as one heart, with your fame as one virtue, pool wisdom and strength, cast great heritage difficult”.But the Hong Kong Hing Chung Club’s most important achievement is its pledge.Since the founding of the Hong Kong Hing Chung Society, members must recite the oath: “Expel the Manchus, restore China and establish the united government.”The oath pointedly raised the question of “anti-Manchu” and pointed the revolutionary edge squarely at the Qing government, which had Manchurian nobles as emperors.The slogan of “restoring China” was undoubtedly much more advanced than the slogan of “opposing the Qing Dynasty and restoring the Ming Dynasty”, which had been inherited from the civil resistance of the past.The historical character of the oath is most evident in the slogan “Create a government of the People”.As for the concept of “united government”, there is no formal explanation in the literature of xingzhong Hui.According to common political sense, it should mean the United Government, or federal government, of the American style, which is a form of bourgeois democratic republic.The slogan of “establishing the united Government” clearly showed the bourgeois nature of the anti-Qing struggle of xingzhong Hui.Therefore, this oath became the first program of China’s bourgeois democratic revolution.